MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS


MANUFACTURER: XENTEX®CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES INC. 
              P.O.B. 220 STREETSVILLE
              MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO,                               -------------   
              CANADA. L5M 2B8                                        XENTEX®13           
                                                                  -------------

MSDS NUMBER: 0028

DATE OF MSDS: JANUARY 2, 1997                            


FOR EMERGENCY CONTACT -     Tel:  905-826-2999  
                            Fax:  905-826-8272  


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                         SECTION 1 - PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

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PRODUCT NAME: XENTEX®13                                 PRODUCT USE: REAGENT

CHEMICAL DESCRIPTION: MIXTURE OF CONCENTRATED FORMIC ACID AND WATER

SYNONYMS: FORMYLIC ACID, HYDROGEN CARBOXYLIC ACID, METHANOIC ACID, AMINIC ACID,
          ACIDE FORMIQUE .      

MOLECULAR FORMULA: C-H2-O2                         STRUCTURAL FORMULA: H-CO-OH

RTECS NUMBER: LQ4900000                          PIN ( UN / NA NUMBERS ): 1779

® IS A REGISTERED TRADE MARK OF XENTEX® CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES INC.

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                           SECTION 2 - INGREDIENTS

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CHEMICAL IDENTITY    CAS  NUMBER    %  Weight    OSHA / PEL    ACGIH / TLV-TWA

FORMIC ACID           64-18-6        85 - 98       5 PPM      5 PPM (9.4 mg/m3)

WATER                 7732-18-5       2 - 15          N/E             N/E

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                           SECTION 3 - PHYSICAL DATA

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APPEARANCE AND ODOR: COLORLESS LIQUID THAT MAY FUME, WITH A PUNGENT,PENETRATING
                     ODOUR; LACHRYMATOR ( VAPOUR IRRITATES THE EYES AND CAUSES
                     TEARS ).
  
ODOR THRESHOLD: 20 -40 mg/m3 ( DETECTION ) (12).
                 
ODOR WARNING PROPERTY: POOR. SINCE ODOR THRESHOLD IS ABOVE THE TLV.

COMPOSITION / PURITY: FORMIC ACID IS COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE AS SOLUTIONS OF
                      85-98% THE MAJOR IMPURITY IS ACETIC ACID AND WATER (1). 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY @ 20 deg C (WATER=1): 1.220           MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 46.03

VAPOR DENSITY: 1.6 (AIR =1)

VAPOR PRESSURE (at 20 deg C): 35 mm Hg ( 4.67 kPa ) 

SATURATION VAPOR CONCENTRATION: 46000 PPM  @ 20 deg C (CALCULATED)

EVAPORATION RATE : 2.1 (BUTYL ACETATE=1)            % VOLATILE BY VOLUME : 100

MELTING POINT: 8.4 deg C (47.1 deg F) 

BOILING POINT : 100.5 deg C (212.9 deg F)

SOLUBILITY IN WATER: SOLUBLE 

SOLUBILITY IN OTHER LIQUIDS: SOLUBLE IN ACETONE, BENZENE, ETHER, GLYCEROL, AND
                             TOLUENE (4).

CRITICAL TEMPERATURE: NA

PARTITION COEFFICIENT: log P(oct) = -1.55; -0.22 (CALC.) (12).

VISCOSITY : 1.804 CENTIPOISE (1.8 mPa.S) AT 20 deg C  (4).

pH: 2.38 (0.1M SOLUTION) CALCULATED.

ACIDITY: MODERATELY STRONG ACID; pKa=3.76


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                        SECTION 4 - FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD

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FLASH POINT: 50 deg C (122 deg F) (90% SOLUTION) (14).

LOWER FLAMMABLE ( EXPLOSIVE ) LIMIT ( LFL/LEL): 18% (90% SOLUTION) (14)

UPPER FLAMMABLE ( EXPLOSIVE ) LIMIT ( UFL/UEL): 57% (90% SOLUTION) (14)
 
EXTINGUISHING MEDIA : WATER SPRAY, DRY CHEMICAL, ALCOHOL FOAM OR CARBON DIOXIDE (14).

SPECIAL FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURE : EVACUATE AREA AND FIGHT FIRE FROM A SAFE DIS-
                                  TANCE OR A PROTECTED LOCATION. APPROACH FIRE
                                  FROM UPWIND. CONTAINERS MAY EXPLODE IN THE
                                  HEAT OF THE FIRE. USE WATER IN FLOODING QUAN-
                                  TITIES AS A SPRAY OR FOG TO KEEP FIRE-EXPOSED
                                  CONTAINERS COOL. APPLY WATER, AS AN EXTIN-
                                  GUISHANT OR AS A COOLANT FROM AS FAR A DISTANCE
                                  AS POSSIBLE. MOVE CONTAINERS AWAY FROM FIRE
                                  AREA IF IT CAN BE DONE WITHOUT RISK.
                                  IF A LEAK OR SPILL HAS NOT IGNITED, USE WATER
                                  SPRAY TO DISPERSE THE VAPOURS AND TO PROTECT
                                  PERSONNEL ATTEMPTING TO STOP A LEAK (14). WATER
                                  SPRAY MAY BE USED TO DILUTE SPILLS TO NONFLAM-
                                  MABLE PRODUCTS, TO FLUSH SPILLS AWAY AND AVOID
                                  EXPOSURES (14). DO NOT ENTER WITHOUT WEARING
                                  SPECIALIZED PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT SUITABLE FOR
                                  THE SITUATION. A FULL-BODY ENCAPSULATED CHEMICAL
                                  RESISTANT SUIT WITH POSITIVE PRESSURE SELF-
                                  CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS (MSHA/NIOSH APPROVED
                                  OR EQUIVALENT) MAY BE NECESSARY. TRAINED PERSONNEL
                                  MAY NEUTRALIZE SPILL.   

FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS: VAPOUR MAY ACCUMULATE IN LOW LYING AREAS. DURING FIRE,
                            IRRITATING/TOXIC GASES MAY BE GENERATED. CONTAINERS
                            MAY EXPLODE IN THE HEAT OF A FIRE.   

AUTOIGNITION TEMPERATURE: 434 deg C (813 deg F) (90% SOLUTION)

TDG FLAMMABILITY CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA: FLAMMABLE   

TOXIC COMBUSTION GASES: CARBON MONOXIDE AND WATER ARE PRODUCED UP TO 150 deg C.
                        AT HIGHER TEMPERATURES CARBON DIOXIDE AND HYDROGEN GAS ARE
                        PRODUCED. FORMALDEHYDE IS PRODUCED AT 300-400 deg C.(15) 

SENSITIVITY TO MECHANICAL IMPACT : NONE IDENTIFIED (MODERATELY STABLE MATERIAL)

SENSITIVITY TO STATIC DISCHARGE: NONE IDENTIFIED

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                           SECTION 5 - HEALTH HAZARD DATA

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THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE( TLV / TWA ): 5 PPM                    STEL / PEL : 5 PPM

LD 50 (ORAL, RAT) mg/Kg: 1100  (3)            LD 50 (ORAL, MOUSE) mg/Kg: 700 (3)
LD 50 INTRAPERITONEAL MOUSE: 940 mg/Kg         LD 50 (ORAL, DOG) mg/Kg: 4000 (5)
LD 50 (ORAL, RABBIT) mg/Kg: >4000 (5)
LETHAL DOSES CAUSED DEPRESSED ACTIVITY, VOMITING, CONVULSIONS AND DIFFICULT
BREATHING (3,5).
 
LC 50 (MOUSE) g/m3: 6.2 (15-MINUTE EXPOSURE)(3)
LC 50 (RAT) g/m3 : 15 (15-MINUTE EXPOSURE)(3)

CARCINOGENICITY: NA
                  
NTP: NO                    IARC: NO           Z  LIST: NO           OSHA REG: NO

TERATOGENICITY AND EMBRYOTOXICITY: NA (NO HUMAN INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE). 
    
MUTAGENICITY: FORMIC ACID HAS PRODUCED MUTATIONS IN E.COLI BACTERIA, SOME NON-
              MAMMALIAN CELLS, AND IN THE GERM CELLS OF INSECTS (DROSOPHILA) (3). 
  
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY/SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS: NA (NO HUMAN INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE). 

PRIMARY ROUTES OF ENTRY: EYE CONTACT, SKIN CONTACT, INHALATION, AND INGESTION.

ACUTE EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE: 

INHALATION: FORMIC ACID IS CORROSIVE. MIST OR VAPOUR ( FOR EXAMPLE 15 PPM) CAN
            CAUSE SEVERE IRRITATION OF NOSE AND THROAT, NASAL DISCHARGE, COUGH-
            ING AND DIFFICULTY BREATHING (8,10). SEVERE EXPOSURE MIGHT PRODUCE
            A DANGEROUS ACCUMULATION OF FLUID IN THE LUNGS (PULMONARY EDEMA),
            SHOCK AND DEATH DUE TO RESPIRATORY FAILURE. THE SYMPTOMS OF PULMONARY
            EDEMA SUCH AS COUGHING AND SHORTNESS OF BREATH CAN BE DELAYED FOR
            SEVERAL HOURS AFTER THE EXPOSURE. 
            ASTHMA MAY BE AGGRAVATED BY EXPOSURE TO FORMIC ACID .
             
SKIN CONTACT: LIQUID CAN RAPIDLY CAUSE PIERCING PAIN, BURNS AND REDNESS OF SKIN.
              FORMIC ACID CAN BE READILY ABSORBED THROUGH THE SKIN, PRODUCING
              SEVERE TOXIC EFFECTS. IN A REPORTED ACCIDENT, HOT FORMIC ACID WAS
              SPLASHED ON A WORKER'S FACE AND NECK AND RESULTED IN IMMEDIATE SKIN
              REDDENING, DIFFICULT BREATHING, DIFFICULT SWALLOWING, INABILITY TO
              SPEAK AND DEATH 6 HOURS LATER (5).

EYE CONTACT: VAPOURS CAN CAUSE EYE IRRITATION. MISTS OR SPRAY OF CONCENTRATED OR
             DILUTE SOLUTIONS CAN CAUSE SEVERE IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGE TO EYE TISSUES.
             ACCIDENTS INVOLVING EYE CONTACT WITH CONCENTRATED FORMIC ACID SOLU-
             TIONS (80%) HAVE PRODUCED CORROSIVE INJURY, INCLUDING IRREVERSIBLE
             DAMAGE TO THE CORNEA IN A FEW CASES (7,8).
 
INGESTION: FORMIC ACID IS CORROSIVE AND CAN CAUSE SEVERE BURNS TO THE LIPS, MOUTH,
           THROAT, ESOPHAGUS AND STOMACH IF INGESTED. OTHER SYMPTOMS OF POISONING
           INCLUDE: SALIVATION, BURNING SENSATION IN MOUTH AND THROAT, BLOODY DI-
           ARRHEA, AGONIZING PAIN. IN THE SEVEREST CASES SYMPTOMS CAN INCLUDE
           SHOCK, RAPID AND SOFT PULSE, COLD AND CLAMMY SKIN, A DROP IN BLOOD
           PRESSURE, SEVERE RESPIRATORY EFFECTS, KIDNEY DAMAGE AND DEATH (5,11).
           THE ESTIMATED LETHAL DOSE IS 30 mL OF FORMIC ACID (16).    

SKIN ABSORPTION: YES

CHRONIC EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE: INGESTION OF 0.5 gm OF FORMIC ACID (DILUTED WITH
                             WATER) DAILY FOR 4 WEEKS PRODUCED NO TOXIC EFFECTS.
                             INGESTION OF 2 TO 3 GRAMS OF FORMATE (SALT OF FORMIC
                             ACID) SEVERAL TIMES DAILY PRODUCED DIZZINESS, NAUSEA,
                             VOMITING, DIFFICULT BREATHING, BLOOD IN THE URINE,
                             AND A LOWER BODY TEMPERATURE (5).
                             SENSITIZATION: THERE IS A REPORT OF AN ASTHMATIC
                             PERSON WHO SUFFERED TYPICAL ASTHMA-LIKE REACTION WHEN
                             INHALING FORMIC ACID (8).  

TARGET ORGANS: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, EYES, SKIN, LIVER, AND KIDNEYS.

OTHER HEALTH HAZARDS: 

MEDICAL CONDITIONS GENERALLY AGGRAVATED BY EXPOSURE: RESPIRATORY DISEASE, AND
                                                     DAMAGED SKIN.                                                                                                                                                                     

EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES:

INHALATION: TAKE PROPER PRECAUTIONS TO ENSURE YOUR OWN SAFETY BEFORE ATTEMPTING
            RESCUE; e.g., WEAR APPROPRIATE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, USE THE
            " BUDDY " SYSTEM. REMOVE SOURCE OF CONTAMINATION OR MOVE VICTIM TO
            FRESH AIR. IF BREATHING IS DIFFICULT, OXYGEN MAY BE BENEFICIAL IF
            ADMINISTERED BY A PERSON TRAINED IN ITS USE, PREFERABLY ON A 
            PHYSICIANíS ADVICE. ENSURE VICTIM IS COMPLETELY AT REST, DO NOT
            ALLOW ANY PHYSICAL EXERTION. SYMPTOMS MAY BE DELAYED FOR SEVERAL
            HOURS AFTER EXPOSURE. IMMEDIATELY OBTAIN MEDICAL ADVICE.
            
EYE CONTACT: IN CASE OF EYE CONTACT, IMMEDIATELY FLUSH THE AFFECTED EYE(S) WITH
             PLENTY OF LUKEWARM WATER, GENTLY FLOWING WATER FOR 60 MINUTES, BY
             THE CLOCK, HOLDING THE EYELID(S) OPEN. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING.
             TAKE CARE NOT TO RINSE CONTAMINATED WATER INTO THE NON-AFFECTED EYE.
             IF NECESSARY, KEEP EMERGENCY VEHICLE WAITING. IF IRRITATION PERSISTS,
             REPEAT FLUSHING. QUICKLY, TRANSPORT VICTIM TO AN EMERGENCY FACILITY.
 
SKIN CONTACT: IMMEDIATELY FLUSH SKIN WITH LUKEWARM WATER FOR AT LEAST 20-30 MIN-
              UTES, BY THE CLOCK. UNDER RUNNING WATER, REMOVE CONTAMINATED CLOTH-
              ING, SHOES, AND LEATHERWEARS (e.g., WATCHBANDS, BELTS). DO NOT
              INTERRUPT FLUSHING. IF NECESSARY, KEEP EMERGENCY VEHICLE WAITING.
              TRANSPORT VICTIM TO AN EMERGENCY CARE FACILITY IMMEDIATELY. COM-
              PLETELY DECONTAMINATE CLOTHING,SHOES, AND LEATHERWEARS BEFORE RE-
              USE OR DISCARD.

INGESTION: NEVER GIVE ANYTHING BY MOUTH IF VICTIM IS RAPIDLY LOSING CONSCIOUS-
           NESS, OR IS UNCONSCIOUS OR CONVULSING. HAVE VICTIM RINSE MOUTH THOR-
           OUGHLY WITH WATER. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. HAVE VICTIM DRINK 240-
           300 mL (8 TO 10 OZ.) OF WATER. IF VOMITING OCCURS NATURALLY, HAVE
           VICTIM LEAN FORWARD TO REDUCE RISK OF ASPIRATION. REPEAT ADMINISTRA-
           TION OF WATER. IF BREATHING HAS STOPPED, TRAINED PERSONNEL SHOULD
           BEGIN ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION OR, IF THE HEART HAS STOPPED, CARDIO-
           PULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR) IMMEDIATELY (AVOID MOUTH-TO-MOUTH
           CONTACT). OBTAIN MEDICAL ATTENTION IMMEDIATELY. QUICKLY, TRANSPORT
           VICTIM TO AN EMERGENCY FACILITY.

FIRST AID COMMENTS: PROVIDE GENERAL SUPPORTIVE MEASURES ( COMFORT, WARMTH, REST).
                    CONSULT A PHYSICIAN AND/OR THE NEAREST POISON CONTROL CENTRE
                    FOR ALL EXPOSURES EXCEPT MINOR INSTANCES OF INHALATION OR
                    SKIN CONTACT. SOME RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE ABOVE SECTIONS MAY
                    BE CONSIDERED MEDICAL ACTS IN SOME JURISTICTIONS. THESE
                    RECOMMENDATIONS SHOULD BE REVIEWED WITH A PHYSICIAN AND
                    APPROPRIATE DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY, AS REQUIRED. ALL FIRST
                    AID PROCEDURES SHOULD BE PERIODICALLY REVIEWED BY A PHYSICIAN
                    FAMILIAR WITH THE MATERIAL AND ITS CONDITIONS OF USE IN THE
                    WORKPLACE.  

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                           SECTION 6 - REACTIVITY DATA

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STABILITY: MODERATELY STABLE. MAY DECOMPOSE SLOWLY DURING STORAGE TO PRODUCE
           CARBON MONOXIDE GAS (1,15).
 
CONDITIONS TO AVOID: HEAT, FLAME, AND OTHER SOURCES OF IGNITION.

HAZARDOUS POLYMERIZATION: WILL NOT OCCUR.

DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS: CARBON MONOXIDE, CARBON DIOXIDE.

INCOMPATIBLES: ALUMINUM - MAY REACT CAUSING INCANDESCENCE.
               OXIDIZING AGENTS - MAY EXPLODE VIOLENTLY.
               STRONG ACIDS (eg. sulfuric, nitric acids) - REACT VIOLENTLY,
               PRODUCING HEAT AND GAS.
               FURFURYL ALCOHOL - MAY REACT VIOLENTLY AND EXPLOSIVELY.
               NITROMETHANE - MIXTURE MAY REACT EXLOSIVELY IF SHOCKED.
               CATALYSTS (eg. palladium-carbon, nickel) - MAY CAUSE DECOMPOSITION
               OF FORMIC ACID, PRODUCING FLAMMABLE AND EXPLOSIVE HYDROGEN GAS.
               STRONG BASES - MAY REACT VIOLENTLY.
               
CORROSIVITY TO METALS: CORROSIVE TO ALUMINUM, CAST IRON AND STEEL, AND LEAD.

STABILITY AND REACTIVITY COMMENTS: FORMIC ACID CAN BREAK DOWN DURING STORAGE TO
                                   PRODUCE TOXIC, FLAMMABLE CARBON MONOXIDE GAS.
                                   FULL UNVENTED CONTAINERS OF PURE ACID MAY BURST
                                   FROM ACCUMULATED PRESSURE (1,15).

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                       SECTION 7- SPILL AND DISPOSAL PROCEDURE 

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STEPS TO BE TAKEN IN THE EVENT OF A SPILL OR DISCHARGE:

PRECAUTIONS: RESTRICT ACCESS TO AREA UNTIL COMPLETION OF CLEANUP. ENSURE CLEAN-
             UP IS CONDUCTED BY FULLY-TRAINED PERSONNEL ONLY. WEAR ADEQUATE
             PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT. SHUTT OFF ALL IGNITION SOURCES.
             REMOVE OR ISOLATE FLAMMABLE OR INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. VENTILATE
             AREA. NOTIFY GOVERNMENT OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY AND
             ENVIRONMENTAL AUTHORITIES.
 
CLEAN-UP: DO NOT TOUCH SPILLED MATERIAL. KEEP UPWIND AND OUT OF LOW AREAS.
          AVOID INHALING VAPOR. STOP OR REDUCE LEAK IF IT CAN BE DONE WITHOUT
          RISK. PREVENT MATERIAL FROM ENTERING SEWERS, WATERWAYS, OR CONFINED
          SPACES. RECOVER SPILLED ACID IF FEASIBLE. CONTAIN SPILL WITH ABSORBENT
          MATERIAL WHICH DOES NOT REACT WITH SPILLED CHEMICAL. FOR SMALL SPILLS,
          CONTAIN AND SOAK UP SPILL WITH ABSORBENT MATERIAL WHICH DOES NOT REACT
          WITH SPILLED CHEMICAL. PUT MATERIAL IN SUITABLE, COVERED, LABELED CON-
          TAINER. FLUSH AREA WITH WATER. DO NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS.
          CONTAMINATED ABSORBENT MATERIAL MAY POSE THE SAME HAZARDS AS THE SPIL-
          LED PRODUCT.
          FOR LARGE SPILLS, CONTACT FIRE AND EMERGENCY SERVICES AND SUPPLIER
          FOR ADVICE.
                                                                                
DISPOSAL PROCEDURE: DISPOSE IN ACCORDANCE WITH ALL APPLICABLE FEDERAL, STATE,
                    AND LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS.

EPA HAZARDOUS WASTE NUMBER: U123 (TOXIC WASTE)


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                    SECTION 8 - INDUSTRIAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

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VENTILATION: USE ADEQUATE GENERAL OR LOCAL EXHAUST VENTILATION TO KEEP MIST OR
             VAPOR LEVELS BELOW THE TLV REQUIREMENT.
 
SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS: NIOSH METHOD(S) 232- NIOSH MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL METHODS.
                       2ND ED. VOL.1; S173 - NIOSH MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL METHODS.
                       2ND ED. VOL.5.

                       TWO OSHA METHODS, ID 112 AND IMIS1310 ARE REPORTED FOR
                       FORMIC ACID.

                       COLORIMETRIC DETECTOR TUBES: COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE.  

ENGINEERING CONTROLS: ENGINEERING METHODS TO REDUCE HAZARDOUS EXPOSURES ARE
                      PREFERRED. METHODS INCLUDE MECHANICAL VENTILATION (DILU-
                      TION AND LOCAL EXHAUST), PROCESS OR PERSONNEL ENCLOSURE,
                      CONTROL OF PROCESS CONDITIONS, AND PROCESS MODIFICATIONS
                      (e.g., SUBSTITUTION OF A LESS HAZARDOUS ACID/SUBSTANCE).
                      ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
                      MAY ALSO BE REQUIRED.BECAUSE OF THE HIGH POTENTIAL HAZARD
                      ASSOCIATED WITH THIS SUBSTANCE, STRINGENT CONTROL MEASURES
                      SUCH AS ENCLOSURE OR ISOLATION ARE RECOMMENDED WHEN DEAL-
                      ING WITH MISTS. USE A NON-SPARKING, GROUNDED,CORROSION-
                      RESISTANT EXHAUST VENTILATION SYSTEMS SEPARATE FROM OTHER
                      EXHAUST VENTILATION SYSTEMS. CLEANING OF CONTAMINATED
                      EXHAUST AIR BEFORE RELEASE TO THE OUTDOORS MAY BE NECESSARY.
                      SUPPLY SUFFICIENT REPLACEMENT AIR TO MAKE UP FOR AIR REMOVED
                      BY EXHAUST SYSTEM.                       

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT: IF ENGINEERING CONTROLS AND WORK PRACTICES ARE NOT
                               EFFECTIVE IN CONTROLLING EXPOSURE TO THIS MATERIAL,
                               THEN WEAR SUITABLE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
                               INCLUDING APPROVED RESPIRATORY PROTECTION. HAVE
                               APPROPRIATE EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE FOR USE IN EMERGEN-
                               CIES SUCH AS SPILLS OR FIRE. IF RESPIRATORY PROTEC-
                               TION IS REQUIRED, INSTITUTE A COMPLETE RESPIRATORY
                               PROTECTION PROGRAM INCLUDING SELECTION, FIT TESTING
                               TRAINING, MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION. REFER TO CSA
                               STANDARD Z94.4-93, " SELECTION, CARE, AND USE OF
                               RESPIRATORS,"
           
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION GUIDELINES: NIOSH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FORMIC ACID CON-
                                   CENTRATIONS IN AIR (17): UP TO 30 PPM, USE
                                   SAR; OR SCBA 
                                                                     
                                   EMERGENCY OR PLANNED ENTRY INTO UNKNOWN CON-
                                   CENTRATION OR IDLH CONDITIONS: POSITIVE PRES-
                                   SURE FULL-FACEPIECE SCBA, OR POSITIVE PRES-
                                   SURE FULL-FACEPIECE SAR WITH AUXILIARY POSI-
                                   TIVE PRESSURE SCBA. IDLH CONCENTRATION FOR
                                   FORMIC ACID IS 30 PPM.
                                  
                                   ESCAPE: GAS MASK WITH ORGANIC VAPOUR CANISTER
                                           AND HIGH EFFICIENCY PARTICULATE FILTER,
                                           OR SCAPE-TYPE SCBA.
                                  
                                   NOTE: SUBSTANCE REPORTED TO CAUSE EYE IRRITA-
                                         TION OR DAMAGE, EYE PROTECTION NEEDED.                
                                         RECOMMENDATIONS APPLY ONLY TO NIOSH AND
                                         MSHA APPROVED RESPIRATORS.  
  
EYE / FACE PROTECTION: CHEMICAL SAFETY GOGGLES. A FACE SHIELD MAY ALSO BE NECESSARY.

SKIN PROTECTION: IMPERVIOUS GLOVES, COVERALLS, BOOTS, AND/OR OTHER RESISTANT PRO-
                 TECTIVE CLOTHING TO PROTECT ALL POSSIBLE SKIN CONTACTS. AN IM-
                 PERVIOUS ACID-RESISTANT FULL-BODY ENCAPSULATING SUIT AND RESPI-
                 RATORY PROTECTION MAY BE REQUIRED IN SOME OPERATIONS.

RESISTANCE OF MATERIALS FOR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: GOOD: POLYURETHANE, BUTYL, NITRILE,
                                                 OR NATURAL RUBBER, PVC, NEOPRENE,
                                                 NITRILE+PVC, NEOPRENE+NATURAL
                                                 RUBBER, NEOPRENE+ STYRENE-
                                                 BUTADIENE RUBBER (13).
                                                 FAIR/POOR: POLYETHYLENE, OR VITON
                                                 (13). 
                                                 
                                                 NOTE: RESISTANCE OF A MATERIAL
                                                       CAN VARY FROM PRODUCT TO
                                                       PRODUCT. EVALUATE RESIS-
                                                       TANCE UNDER CONDITIONS OF
                                                       USE. 

OTHERS: EYE WASH FOUNTAIN AND SAFETY SHOWER IN THE AREA OF WORK IS REQUIRED.


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                     SECTION 9 - STORAGE AND HANDLING PRECAUTIONS

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STORAGE: STORE IN TIGHTLY CLOSED CORROSION-RESISTANT CONTAINER. STORE IN A DRY,
         AND WELL VENTILATED PLACE OUT OF DIRECT SUNLIGHT.  STORE AT A TEMPERATURE
         ABOVE 8 deg C SINCE FREEZING AND EXPANSION OF THE ACID COULD CAUSE CON-
         TAINER TO BURST. STORE AWAY FROM HEAT AND IGNITION SOURCES. DO NOT STORE
         IN VICINITY OF INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. USE GROUNDED, NON-SPARKING VENTILA-
         TION SYSTEM AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT.USE CORROSION-RESISTANT STRUCTURAL
         MATERIALS AND LIGHTING AND VENTILATION SYSTEMS IN THE STORAGE AREA. STORE
         IN SUITABLE, LABELLED CONTAINERS, EQUIPPED WITH VENTED CLOSURES (eg.
         approved safety cans). PROTECT FROM DAMAGE. SEALED CONTAINERS MAY REQUIRE
         PERIODIC VENTING. USE SUITABLE, APPROVED STORAGE CABINETS, TANKS, ROOMS
         AND BUILDINGS. KEEP QUANTITIES STORED AS SMALL AS POSSIBLE. AVOID BULK
         STORAGE INDOORS. RESTRICT ACCESS TO STORAGE AREA. POST WARNING SIGNS.
         KEEP STORAGE AREA SEPARATE FROM POPULATED WORK AREAS. INSPECT PERIODICAL-
         LY FOR DEFICIENCIES SUCH AS DAMAGE OR LEAKS.
         COMPLY WITH ALL APPLICABLE REGULATIONS FOR THE STORAGE AND HANDLING OF
         COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS.  
 
HANDLING: THIS MATERIAL IS CORROSIVE, COMBUSTIBLE, AND TOXIC. BEFORE HANDLING, IT
          IS IMPORTANT THAT ENGINEERING CONTROLS ARE OPERATING AND THAT PROTECT-
          IVE EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS AND PERSONAL HYGIEN MEASURES ARE BEING
          FOLLOWED. PEOPLE WORKING WITH THIS CHEMICAL SHOULD BE PROPERLY TRAINED
          REGARDING ITS HAZARDS AND ITS SAFE USE.
          KEEP MATERIAL AWAY FROM SPARK, FLAMES ANDOTHER IGNITION SOURCES. POST
          "NO SMOKING" SIGNS IN THE AREA OF USE. AVOID PRODUCING CHEMICAL MIST
          OR VAPOR. PREVENT THE RELEASE OF MIST OR VAPOR INTO THE AIR.USE EXTREME
          CAUTION. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO OPEN CONTAINER IF IT IS OF UNKNOWN AGE. USE
          THE SMALLEST POSSIBLE AMOUNTS IN DESIGNATED AREAS WITH ADEQUATE
          VENTILATION. WHEN HANDLING LARGE QUANTITIES, CLOSED HANDLING SYSTEMS
          SHOULD BE USED. UNPROTECTED PERSONS SHOULD AVOID ALL CONTACTS WITH THIS
          CHEMICAL INCLUDING CONTAMINATED EQUIPMENT. 
          LABEL CONTAINERS. AVOID DAMAGING CONTAINERS. KEEP CONTAINERS TIGHTLY
          CLOSED WHEN NOT IN USE. ASSUME THAT EMPTY CONTAINERS CONTAIN RESIDUES
          WHICH ARE HAZARDOUS. USE CORROSION-RESISTANT TRANSFER EQUIPMENT WHEN
          DISPENSING. WHENEVER POSSIBLE, USE SELF-CLOSING, PORTABLE CONTAINERS
          FOR DISPENSING SMALL AMOUNTS OF THIS MATERIAL. NEVER TRANSFER LIQUID
          BY PRESSURIZING THE ORIGINAL CONTAINER WITH AIR OR INERT GAS. FOLLOW
          THE CHEMICAL SUPPLIER'S ADVICE REGARDING VENTING OF DRUMS. IMMEDIATELY
          CONTACT THE SUPPLIER FOR HANDLING INSTRUCTION IF DRUMS OF THIS MATERIAL
          APPEAR TO BE SWOLLEN. HAVE SUITABLE EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT FOR FIRE, SPILLS
          AND LEAKS READILY AVAILABLE. PRACTICE GOOD HOUSKEEPING. MAINTAIN HANDL-
          ING EQUIPMENT. COMPLY WITH APPLICABLE REGULATIONS.
          DO NOT GET IN EYES, ON SKIN, OR ON CLOTHING. WASH THOROUGHLY WITH WATER
          AFTER HANDLING. REMOVE CONTAMINATED CLOTHING IMMEDIATELY. KEEP CONTAMINA-
          TED CLOTHING IN CLOSED CONTAINER. DISCARD OR LAUNDER BEFORE REWEARING.
          INFORM LAUNDRY PERSONNEL OF CONTAMINANTíS HAZARDS. DO NOT EAT OR DRINK
          IN WORK AREA.

NOTE: MATERIAL IS ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE. DO NOT STORE OR HANDLE NEAR ELECTRIC
      CURRENTS. READ THE ENTIRE MSDS AND LABEL BEFORE STORAGE AND HANDLING.

EMPTY CONTAINERS: RETAIN PRODUCT RESIDUE AND VAPORS. APPLY ALL NECESSARY PRECAU-
                  TIONS TO EMPTY CONTAINERS OF THIS PRODUCT.

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                       SECTION 10 - REGULATORY INFORMATION

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WHMIS: B3 (COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID),  E (CORROSIVE MATERIAL).

TDG / D.O.T.: CORROSIVE SUBSTANCE, FORMIC ACID, CLASS 8(9.2), UN1779, PG II.
              SPECIAL PROVISIONS: 109
 
DSL / NDSL / TSCA: THE  (ALL)  CONSTITUENT(S)  OF THIS PRODUCT IS (ARE) INCLUDED
                   ON THE DSL / NDSL OF CEPA AND TSCA INVENTORY.

SARA / TITLE III HAZARD CATEGORIES AND LISTS: ACUTE (YES) , CHRONIC (YES),
                                              FLAMMABILITY (YES), PRESSURE (NO),
                                              REACTIVITY (NO), EXTREMELY HAZARD-
                                              OUS SUBSTANCE (NO), CERCLA HAZARD-
                                              OUS SUBSTANCE (YES), SARA 313 TOXIC
                                              CHEMICALS (NO), TSCA INVENTORY (YES).


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                         SECTION 11 - PRECAUTIONARY WARNING

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XENTEX® SAFETY DATA SYSTEM


                        HEALTH                     3       HIGH
   
                        FLAMMABILITY               2       MODERATE

                        REACTIVITY                 1       LOW

                        CONTACT                    3       HIGH

SPECIAL WARNING: SUFFICIENT PUBLIC DOMAIN INFORMATION ON ACCIDENTS INVOLVING
                 THIS MATERIAL EXISTS TO WARRANT STRICT EXCERCISE OF DUE DIL-
                 IGENCE IN HANDLING, TRANSPORTATION, AND STORAGE OF FORMIC
                 ACID BY WORKERS, SUPERVISORS, AND EMPLOYERS.
 
NFPA 704M: HEALTH-3, FLAMMABILITY-2, REACTIVITY-0   

 
0 = Minimal     1 = Slight      2 = Moderate       3 = Serious     4 = Severe                      

                                                                               

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                          SECTION 12 - ABBREVIATIONS

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NA = NOT AVAILABLE, OR NOT APPLICABLE                    N/E = NOT ESTABLISHED               
OSHA = OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
ACGIH = AMERICAN CONFERENCE OF GOVERNMENT INDUSTRIAL HYGIENISTS
TLV = THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE
SAR = SUPPLIED-AIR RESPIRATOR        SCBA = SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS 
IDLH = IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE OR HEALTH
NIOSH = NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH
MSHA = MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
WHMIS = WORKPLACE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INFORMATION SYSTEM
TDG = TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS
CEPA = CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                       
                         SECTION  13 - OTHER  INFORMATION

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
             
THE INFORMATION, DATA, AND REFERENCES CONTAINED HEREIN ARE BELIEVED TO BE CORRECT
BUT DOES NOT PURPORT TO BE ALL-INCLUSIVE AND SHALL BE USED ONLY AS A GUIDE AND IS
NOT PACKAGE SIZE SPECIFIC, NOR SHOULD IT BE TAKEN AS A WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION.
THIS INFORMATION IS OFFERED SOLELY FOR YOUR CONSIDERATION, INVESTIGATION, AND
VERIFICATION. ANY USE OF THE INFORMATION MUST BE DETERMINED BY THE USER TO BE IN
ACCORDANCE WITH APPLICABLE FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS.  NOTH-
ING HEREIN IS TO  BE CONSTRUED AS RECOMMENDING ANY PRACTICE IN  VIOLATION OF ANY
PATENT OR IN VIOLATION OF ANY LAW OR REGULATION. IT IS THE USER'S RESPONSIBILITY
TO DETERMINE FOR HERSELF / HIMSELF THE SUITABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT FOR A SPECIFIC
PURPOSE AND TO ADOPT SUCH SAFETY PRECAUTION AS MAY BE NECESSARY. WE MAKE NO WAR-
RANTY  AS TO THE RESULTS  TO BE OBTAINED IN USING ANY OF OUR PRODUCTS. SINCE ALL
CONSEQUENCES OF USING AND HANDLING THIS PRODUCT ARE NOT KNOWN TO US,  AND CONDI-
TIONS OF USE AND HANDLING ARE NOT UNDER OUR CONTROL, WE MUST NECESSARILY DISCLAIM
ALL LIABILITY WITH RESPECT TO THE USE, APPLICATION, STORAGE,AND TRANSPORTATION OF
THIS PRODUCT. XENTEX ® SHALL NOT BE HELD LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGE RESULTING FROM
HANDLING OR FROM CONTACT WITH THIS PRODUCT. READ THE PRODUCT BULLETIN, PRODUCT
LABEL, THE REVERSE SIDE OF THE INVOICE OR PACKING SLIP, AND THE  CUSTOMER AGREE-
MENT FOR ADDITIONAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE.


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                               
                           SECTION  14 - REFERENCES

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(1)   KIRK-OTHMER ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY. 3RD. ED. VOL. 11. JOHN
      WILEY AND SONS , 1980. P.251-257 

(2)   PATTY'S INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND TOXICOLOGY. 3RD REV.ED. VOL. 2C JOHN WILEY
      AND SONS, 1982. P.4903-4909

(3)   RTECS RECORD FOR FORMIC ACID. DATE OF LAST UPDATE: 87 03; PRINTED 1988-03-11

(4)   HSDB RECORD FOR FORMIC ACID. DATE OF UPDATE: 10/14/86; PRINTED 1988-03-11

(5)   VON OETTINGEN, W.F. THE ALIPHATIC ACIDS AND THEIR ESTERS-- TOXICITY AND
      POTENTIAL DANGERS. A.M.A. ARCHIVES OF INDUSTRIAL HEALTH. VOL 20 (DEC. 1959)
      P. 81-95 
      
(6)   AMDUR, M.O. THE RESPONSE OF GUINEA PIGS TO INHALATION OF FORMALDEHYDE AND
      FORMIC ACID ALONE AND WITH A SODIUM CHLORIDE AEROSOL. INT. J. AIR.POLL.
      VOL.3, NO. 4 (1960). P. 201-220

(7)   GRANT, W.M. TOXICOLOGY OF THE EYE. 3RD ED. CHARLES C. THOMAS, 1986. P. 446-448

(8)   LIESIVUORI, J., ET AL. SHORT COMMUNICATION: FARMERS' EXPOSURE TO FORMIC ACID
      VAPOUR IN SILAGE MAKING. ANN. OCCUP. HYG. VOL. 27, NO.3 (1983). P. 327-329 

(9)   SOLMANN, T. STUDIES OF CHRONIC INTOXICATIONS ON ALBINO RATS: III. ACETIC
      AND FORMIC ACIDS. JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS.
      VOL.16 (1921) P.463-475 
  
(10)  DOCUMENTATION OF THE THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES AND BIOLOGICAL EXPOSURE INDICES.
      5TH ED. ACGIH, 1986. P. 279

(11)  V. MUHLENDAHL, K.E., ET AL. LOCAL INJURIES BY ACCIDENTAL INGESTION OF COR-
      ROSIVE SUBSTANCES BY CHILDREN. ARCHIVES OF TOXICOLOGY. VOL. 39 (1978).
      P. 299-314 

(12)  VERSCHUEREN, K. HANDBOOK OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA ON ORGANIC CHEMICALS. 2ND.
      ED. VAN NOSTRAND REINHOLD, 1983. P. 683-685  

(13)  SCHWOPE, A.D., ET AL. GUIDELINES FOR THE SELECTION OF CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE
      CLOTHING. 3RD.ED. VOL.1 ACGIH, 1987. P. 67 

(14)  FIRE PROTECTION GUIDE ON HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. 9TH ED. NATIONAL FIRE PRO-
      TECTION ASSOCIATION, 1986. P. 49-51 325M-54 TO 491M-97

(15)  ACIDE FORMIQUE (FICHE TOXICOLOGIQUE NO. 149). I.N.R.S. CAHIERS DE NOTES
      DOCUMENTAIIRES. NO.9,LER TRIMESTRE (1980). P. 177-180
                                                                               
(16)  DREISBACH, R.H. HANDBOOK OF POISONING: PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT.
      11TH ED. LANGE MEDICAL PUBLICATIONS, 1983. P. 218-219 
 
(17)  NIOSH POCKET GUIDE TO CHEMICAL HAZARDS. NIOSH, JUNE 1990. P. 118-119 


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