MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS



MANUFACTURER: XENTEX®CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES INC. 
              P.O.B. 220 STREETSVILLE
              MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO, CANADA. L5M 2B8               -------------   
                                                                     XENTEX®14           
                                                                  -------------

MSDS NUMBER: 0029

DATE OF MSDS: JANUARY 9, 1997                           


FOR EMERGENCY CONTACT -     Tel:  905-826-2999  
                            Fax:  905-826-8272  


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                         SECTION 1 - PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

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PRODUCT NAME: XENTEX®14                                 PRODUCT USE: REAGENT

CHEMICAL DESCRIPTION: CONCENTRATED NITRIC ACID

SYNONYMS: AZOTIC ACID, HYDROGEN NITRATE, AQUA FORTIS, ACIDE NITRIQUE.      

MOLECULAR FORMULA: H-N-O3                       STRUCTURAL FORMULA: H-O-N(O)=0

RTECS NUMBER(S): QU5775000                 PIN ( UN / NA NUMBERS ): 2031,  2032

® IS A REGISTERED TRADE MARK OF XENTEX CHEMICAL  INDUSTRIES INC.

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                            SECTION 2 - INGREDIENTS

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CHEMICAL IDENTITY    CAS  NUMBER    %  Weight     OSHA / PEL    ACGIH / TLV-TWA

NITRIC ACID           7697-37-2      50 - 70        2 PPM       2 PPM (5 mg/m3)

WATER                 7732-18-5      30 - 50          N/E             N/E

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                           SECTION 3 - PHYSICAL DATA

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APPEARANCE AND ODOR: CLEAR, COLOURLESS OR YELLOWISH LIQUID WHITH AN ACRID, CHOK-
                     ING ODOUR. HYGROSCOPIC. 
                       
ODOR THRESHOLD: 0.75 TO 2.5 mg/m3 (DETECTION) (2).  

ODOR WARNING PROPERTY: NOT RELIABLE. IRRITATION REPORTED AT 155 mg/m3 ( 30 TIMES
                       GREATER THAN TLV) (2).

COMPOSITION / PURITY: NITRIC ACID IS COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE AT 50 TO 70% (WT/WT)
                      WITH LIMITED AMOUNTS OF CHLORIDE, SULFATE, ARSENIC, HEAVY
                      METALS AND IRON.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY (WATER=1): 1.41 (70.0 % NITRIC ACID) (3). 

MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 63.02

VAPOR DENSITY: 2.17 (HNO3); 2 TO 3 (ESTIMATED)  (AIR =1) (6)

VAPOR PRESSURE (at 20 deg C): 5.5 mm Hg ( 0.73 kPa ) 70 % ACID (3); 7.1 mmHg
                              (0.95 kPA) 70% ACID (14).

SATURATION VAPOR CONCENTRATION: 7200 AND 9300 PPM AT 20 deg C (CALCULATED)

EVAPORATION RATE :NA                                  % VOLATILE BY VOLUME : NA

MELTING POINT: -41 deg C (-42 deg F) (70% ACID)(3).

BOILING POINT : 122 deg C (250 deg F) (70% ACID)(3).

SOLUBILITY IN WATER: SOLUBLE IN ALL PROPORTIONS .

SOLUBILITY IN OTHER LIQUIDS: NA. REACTS WITH MANY ORGANIC SOLVENTS (e.g. ethanol,
                             aceton).

CRITICAL TEMPERATURE: NA

PARTITION COEFFICIENT: NA

VISCOSITY - DYNAMIC: 2 CENTIPOISE (2 mPa.s) AT 20 deg C (100%)

pH: 1.0 (0.1 M SOLUTION).

BASICITY: STRONG ACID; pKa=-1.4.


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                       SECTION 4 - FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD

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FLASH POINT ( CLOSED CUP ): NA           FLAMMABLE LIMITS IN AIR ( LFL/UFL): NA
 
EXTINGUISHING MEDIA : USE EXTINGUISHING MEDIA APPROPRIATE FOR SURROUNDING FIRE
                      AND COMPATIBLE WITH ACIDS.

SPECIAL FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURE : EVACUATE AREA AND FIGHT FIRE FROM A SAFE DIS-
                                  TANCE OR A PROTECTED LOCATION. APPROACH FIRE
                                  FROM UPWIND. CONTAINERS MAY EXPLODE IN THE
                                  HEAT OF THE FIRE. USE WATER IN FLOODING QUAN-
                                  TITIES AS A SPRAY OR FOG TO KEEP FIRE-EXPOSED
                                  CONTAINERS COOL. APPLY WATER, AS ACID DILUENT,
                                  AS ABSORBENT OF NITROGEN OXIDE GASES, AND AS A
                                  COOLANT FROM AS FAR A DISTANCE AS POSSIBLE.
                                  MOVE CONTAINERS AWAY FROM FIRE AREA IF IT CAN
                                  BE DONE WITHOUT RISK.
                                  AVOID SPRAYING WATER DIRECTLY INTO THE ACID
                                  CONTAINER. USE WATER SPRAY OR FOG TO REDUCE OR
                                  DIRECT VAPORS. DO NOT ENTER WITHOUT WEARING
                                  SPECIALIZED PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT SUITABLE FOR
                                  THE SITUATION. A FULL-BODY ENCAPSULATED CHEMIC-
                                  AL RESISTANT SUIT WITH POSITIVE PRESSURE SELF-
                                  CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS ( MSHA / NIOSH
                                  APPROVED OR EQUIVALENT ) MAY BE NECESSARY.
                                  TRAINED PERSONNEL MAY NEUTRALIZE SPILL.   

FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS: CONCENTRATED NITRIC ACID IS A STRONG OXIDIZER AND ITS
                            HEAT OF REACTION WITH REDUCING AGENTS OR COMBUSTIBLE
                            ORGANIC MATERIALS MAY CAUSE IGNITION OR EXPLOSION.
                            REACTS WITH MOST METALS TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN GAS WHICH
                            FORMS AN EXPLOSIVE MIXTURE WITH AIR. REACT WITH WATER
                            AND GENERATES HEAT.    

AUTOIGNITION TEMPERATURE: NA

TDG FLAMMABILITY CLASSIFICATION : NOT FLAMMABLE   

TOXIC COMBUSTION GASES: HYDROGEN GAS. NITROGEN OXIDES ON HEATING (3)

SENSITIVITY TO MECHANICAL IMPACT : NONE IDENTIFIED

SENSITIVITY TO STATIC DISCHARGE: NONE IDENTIFIED

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                           SECTION 5 - HEALTH HAZARD DATA

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THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE( TLV / TWA ): 2 PPM (5.2 mg/m3)
TLV- STEL: 4 PPM (10 mg/m3)                          PEL / TWA : 2 PPM (5 mg/m3)

LD 50 (ORAL, RAT) mg/Kg: NA
LC 50 INHALATION 1-HOUR RAT : 2500 PPM

CARCINOGENICITY: NON IDENTIFIED
                  
NTP: NO               IARC: NO            Z  LIST: YES             OSHA REG: YES

TERATOGENICITY AND EMBRYOTOXICITY: NA (NO HUMAN INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE). 
    
MUTAGENICITY: NA (NO HUMAN INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE).
  
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY/SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS: NA 

PRIMARY ROUTES OF ENTRY: EYE CONTACT, SKIN CONTACT, INHALATION, AND INGESTION.

ACUTE EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE: 

INHALATION: NITROGEN OXIDE GASES SUCH AS NITROGEN DIOXIDE PRESENT AT LOW LEVELS
            IN NITRIC ACID CONTRIBUTE SIGNIFICANTLY TO TOXIC EFFECTS OF INHALING
            VAPOR AND MISTS. SEVERITY OF EFFECTS ARE DEPENDENT ON THE CONCENTRA-
            TION OF ACID AND NITROGEN OXIDES, PARTICULARLY NITROGEN DIOXIDE, AND
            THE DURATION OF EXPOSURE. VAPOR OR MIST MAY CAUSE THE SENSATION OF A
            CHOKING, BURNING THROAT OR CAUSE COUGHING, CHEST PAIN AND DIFFICULT
            BREATHING. THESE SYMPTOMS MAY BE VERY MILD OR MAY BE DELAYED SEVERAL
            HOURS. OTHER MORE SERIOUS SYMPTOMS MAY DEVELOP WITHOUT PRIOR WARNING.
            WITIN 24 HOURS, SYMPTOMS OF MODERATE TO SEVERE BREATHING DIFFICULTIES
            AND BLUISH-COLORED SKIN (CYANOSIS) MAY PROGRESS VERY RAPIDLY TO CAUSE
            DEATH, BY SWELLING OF LUNG TISSUES (BRONCHOPNEUMONIA) OR FLUID IN THE
            LUNGS (PULMONARY EDEMA). (5,6) 
             
             
SKIN CONTACT: CAN CAUSE SEVERE BURNS AND PAIN. THE AFFECTED AREA (DEEPLY STAINED)
              MAY BECOME ULCERATED WITH THE DAMAGED SKIN SHEDDING OFF. PERMANENT
              SKIN DAMAGE OR SCARRING MAY RESULT.CONTACT WITH LARGE AREAS OF SKIN
              CAN BE FATAL IF THE ACID IS NOT WASHED AWAY IMMEDIATELY. (7)

EYE CONTACT: VAPOR CAN CAUSE IRRITATION AND TEARING OF THE EYES. MISTS CAN PROBAB-
             LY CAUSE SEVERE IRRITATION OR INJURY IF EXPOSURE IS PROLONGED. CONTACT
             WITH CONCENTRATED NITRIC ACID LIQUID CAN CAUSE IMMEDIATE AND SEVERE
             TISSUE DAMAGE RESULTING IN BLINDNESS, WHICH MAY BE IRREVERSIBLE. (10)

INGESTION: NITRIC ACID CAN CAUSE SEVERE PAIN AND CORROSIVE BURNS TO THE MOUTH,
           THROAT, ESOPHAGUS AND STOMACH IF INGESTED. SYMPTOMS MAY INCLUDE ABDOMIN-
           AL PAIN, NAUSEA, VOMITING, AND SHOCK. DEATH MAY OCCUR WITHIN HOURS OF
           SEVERE POISONING, OR MAY BE DELAYED FOR DAYS OR WEEKS. (7) SMALL AMOUNTS
           OF ACID (LESS THAN 10 mL) MAY BE FATAL. (4, 13) ACID WHICH ENTERS THE
           LUNGS DURING INGESTION OR VOMITING (ASPIRATION) CAN CAUSE SERIOUS LUNG
           INJURY AND DEATH. THE SYMPTOMS OF LUNG DAMAGE, SUCH AS BREATHING
           DIFFICULTIES MAY BE DELAYED FOR SEVERAL HOURS.

SKIN ABSORPTION: NON IDENTIFIED

CHRONIC EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE:

DENTAL EROSION: REPEATED EXPOSURES TO NITRIC ACID VAPOR AND MIST MAY CAUSE THE
                BREAKDOWN OF TOOTH ENAMEL. MOST STUDIES DESCRIBE EXPOSURE TO BOTH
                SULFURIC AND NITRIC ACID. HOWEVER, ONE STUDY REPORTED THAT 3 OF
                32 WORKERS EXPOSED TO NITRIC ACID ALONE HAD ACTIVE DENTAL ERRO-
                SION. (7) 
                
INHALATION EFFECTS: REPEATED EXPOSURE TO NITRIC ACID MISTS AND VAPOR MAY CAUSE
                    LUNG DAMAGE SUCH AS SWELLING OF LUNG TISSUES AND AIR PASSAGES
                    (CHRONIC PNEUMONITIS AND BRONCHITIS). (9)
                    

TARGET ORGANS: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, LUNGS, EYES, SKIN, TEETH, MUCOUS MEMBRANE, AND
               GI TRACT.

OTHER HEALTH HAZARDS: 

MEDICAL CONDITIONS GENERALLY AGGRAVATED BY EXPOSURE: RESPIRATORY DISEASE, CARDIO-
                                                     PULMONARY DISEASE, EYE DISORDERS,
                                                     LUNG DISEASE, AND DAMAGED SKIN.                                                                                                                                                                     

EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES:

INHALATION: TAKE PROPER PRECAUTIONS TO ENSURE YOUR OWN SAFETY BEFORE ATTEMPTING
            RESCUE; e.g., WEAR APPROPRIATE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, USE THE
            " BUDDY " SYSTEM. REMOVE SOURCE OF CONTAMINATION OR MOVE VICTIM TO
            FRESH AIR. IF BREATHING IS DIFFICULT, OXYGEN MAY BE BENEFICIAL IF
            ADMINISTERED BY A PERSON TRAINED IN ITS USE, PREFERABLY ON A
            PHYSICIANíS ADVICE. ENSURE VICTIM IS COMPLETELY AT REST, DO NOT
            ALLOW ANY PHYSICAL EXERTION. SYMPTOMS MAY BE DELAYED UP TO 48 HOURS
            AFTER EXPOSURE. IMMEDIATELY TRANSPORT VICTIM TO AN EMERGENCY MEDICAL
            CARE FACILITY.

INGESTION: NEVER GIVE ANYTHING BY MOUTH IF VICTIM IS RAPIDLY LOSING CONSCIOUS-
           NESS, OR IS UNCONSCIOUS OR CONVULSING. HAVE VICTIM RINSE MOUTH THOR-
           OUGHLY WITH WATER. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. HAVE VICTIM DRINK 240-
           300 mL (8 TO 10 OZ.) OF WATER. IF MILK IS AVAILABLE IT MAY BE ADMIN-
           ISTERED AFTER THE WATER HAS BEEN GIVEN. IF VOMITING OCCURS NATURALLY,
           HAVE VICTIM LEAN FORWARD TO REDUCE RISK OF ASPIRATION. REPEAT ADMIN-
           ISTRATION OF WATER. QUICKLY,TRANSPORT VICTIM TO AN EMERGENCY MEDICAL
           CARE FACILITY.

EYE CONTACT: IN CASE OF EYE CONTACT, IMMEDIATELY FLUSH THE AFFECTED EYE(S) WITH
             PLENTY OF LUKEWARM, GENTLY FLOWING WATER FOR AT LEAST 20-30
             MINUTES, BY THE CLOCK, HOLDING THE EYELID(S) OPEN. NEUTRAL SALINE
             SOLUTION MAY BE USED AS SOON AS IT IS AVAILABLE. DO NOT INTERRUPT
             FLUSHING. IF NECESSARY, KEEP EMERGENCY VEHICLE WAITING. TAKE CARE
             NOT TO RINSE CONTAMINATED WATER INTO THE NON-AFFECTED EYE OR ONTO
             THE FACE. IF IRRITATION PERSISTS, REPEAT FLUSHING. QUICKLY,
             TRANSPORT VICTIM TO AN EMERGENCY MEDICAL CARE FACILITY.
 
SKIN CONTACT: IMMEDIATELY FLUSH SKIN WITH LUKEWARM WATER FOR AT LEAST 20-30 MIN-
              UTES, BY THE CLOCK. UNDER RUNNING WATER, REMOVE CONTAMINATED CLOTH-
              ING, SHOES, AND LEATHERWEARS (e.g., WATCHBANDS, BELTS). DO NOT
              INTERRUPT FLUSHING. IF NECESSARY, KEEP EMERGENCY VEHICLE WAITING.
              TRANSPORT VICTIM TO AN EMERGENCY CARE FACILITY IMMEDIATELY. COM-
              PLETELY DECONTAMINATE CLOTHING,SHOES, AND LEATHERWEARS BEFORE RE-
              USE OR DISCARD.


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                           SECTION 6 - REACTIVITY DATA

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STABILITY: NORMALLY STABLE. LIQUID EXPOSED TO LIGHT DECOMPOSES SLOWLY TO PRODUCE
           NITROGEN OXIDES, PRODUCING A YELLOWISH COLOUR.

CONDITIONS TO AVOID: HEAT, LIGHT, AND WATER

HAZARDOUS POLYMERIZATION: WILL NOT OCCUR.

DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS: HYDROGEN, AND OXIDES OF NITROGEN

INCOMPATIBLES: NITRIC ACID IS AN OXIDIZING AGENT AND IS VERY REACTIVE. NITRIC
               ACID IS THE COMMON CHEMUCAL MOST FREQUENTLY INVOLVED IN REACTIVE
               INCIDENTS. (17) REFERENCES 8, 13 AND 17 REVIEW HAZARDOUS REACTIONS
               AND INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. 
               
               MOST METALS, METAL OXIDES, AND POWDERED METALS (e.g. antimony,
               bismuth, lithium, magnesium, manganese, titanium) MAY REACT
               VIOLENTLY OR EXPLOSIVELY GENERATING HEAT AND MAY REACT TO RELEASE
               NITROGEN OXIDES.

               ORGANIC CHEMICALS (e.g. anhydrides, ketones, alcohols, nitriles,
               amines, aldehydes, ethers, hydrocarbons, nitroaromatics, alkanes)
               MAY REACT VIOLENTLY OR EXPLOSIVELY, IGNITING SPONTANEOUSLY.
               
               ORGANIC SOLIDS (e.g., paper, clothing, charcoal, sawdust) CAN REACT
               REACT VIOLENTLY OR EXPLOSIVELY, IGNITING SPONTANEOUSLY, IMMEDIATELY
               OR AFTER DELAY.

               VARIOUS SULFIDES, NON-METAL HYDRIDES AND CARBIDES MAY REACT
               VIOLENTLY OR EXPLOSIVELY, IGNITING SPONTANEOUSLY OR AFTER DELAY.

               REDUCING MATERIALS REACT VIOLENTLY OR EXPLOSIVELY.
   
   
CORROSIVITY TO METALS: CORROSIVE TO MOST METALS. (3)


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                    SECTION 7- SPILL AND DISPOSAL PROCEDURE 

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STEPS TO BE TAKEN IN THE EVENT OF A SPILL OR DISCHARGE:

PRECAUTIONS: RESTRICT ACCESS TO AREA UNTIL COMPLETION OF CLEANUP. ENSURE CLEAN-
             UP IS CONDUCTED BY FULLY-TRAINED PERSONNEL ONLY. WEAR ADEQUATE
             PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT. REMOVE OR ISOLATE FLAMMABLE OR IN-
             COMPATIBLE MATERIALS. VENTILATE AREA. NOTIFY GOVERNMENT OCCUPA-
             TIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL AUTHORITIES.
 
CLEAN-UP: DO NOT TOUCH SPILLED MATERIAL. KEEP UPWIND AND OUT OF LOW AREAS.
          AVOID INHALING VAPOR. STOP OR REDUCE LEAK IF IT CAN BE DONE WITHOUT
          RISK. PREVENT MATERIAL FROM ENTERING SEWERS, WATERWAYS, OR CONFINED
          SPACES. RECOVER SPILLED ACID IF FEASIBLE. CONTAIN SPILL WITH EARTH,
          SAND, OR ABSORBENT MATERIAL WHICH DOES NOT REACT WITH SPILLED CHEMI-
          CAL. FOR SMALL SPILLS, CONTAIN AND SOAK UP SPILL WITH ABSORBENT
          MATERIAL WHICH DOES NOT REACT WITH SPILLED CHEMICAL. PUT MATERIAL
          IN SUITABLE, COVERED, LABELED CONTAINER. FLUSH AREA WITH WATER. DO
          NOT GET WATER INSIDE CONTAINERS. CONTAMINATED ABSORBENT MATERIAL MAY
          POSE THE SAME HAZARDS AS THE SPILLED PRODUCT.
          FOR LARGE SPILLS, CONTACT FIRE AND EMERGENCY SERVICES AND SUPPLIER
          FOR ADVICE. WATER FOG OR SPRAY MAY BE NECESSARY TO KNOCK DOWN VAPORS.
                                                                                
DISPOSAL PROCEDURE: DISPOSE IN ACCORDANCE WITH ALL APPLICABLE FEDERAL, STATE,
                    AND LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS.

EPA HAZARDOUS WASTE NUMBER: D001, D002 (IGNITABLE, CORROSIVE WASTE)


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                   SECTION 8 - INDUSTRIAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

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VENTILATION: USE ADEQUATE GENERAL OR LOCAL EXHAUST VENTILATION TO KEEP MIST OR
             VAPOR LEVELS BELOW 5 mg/m3 OF THIS PRODUCT IN THE CONFINED SPACE.
 
SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS: OSHA METHOD ID127 FOR NITRIC ACID.

                       NIOSH METHOD 7903- NIOSH MANUAL OF ANALYTICAL METHODS.
                       3RD ED. VOL.1; S319 (NITRIC ACID)- NIOSH MANUAL OF ANALYT-
                       ICAL   METHODS. 2ND ED. VOL 4.
                       
                       COLORIMETRIC DETECTOR TUBES: COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE.  

ENGINEERING CONTROLS: ENGINEERING METHODS TO CONTROL HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS ARE
                      PREFERRED. METHODS INCLUDE MECHANICAL VENTILATION (DILU-
                      TION AND LOCAL EXHAUST), PROCESS OR PERSONNEL ENCLOSURE,
                      CONTROL OF PROCESS CONDITIONS, AND PROCESS MODIFICATIONS
                      (e.g., SUBSTITUTION OF A LESS HAZARDOUS ACID/SUBSTANCE).
                      ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
                      MAY ALSO BE REQUIRED.BECAUSE OF THE HIGH POTENTIAL HAZARD
                      ASSOCIATED WITH THIS SUBSTANCE, STRINGENT CONTROL MEASURES
                      SUCH AS ENCLOSURE OR ISOLATION ARE RECOMMENDED. USE COR-
                      ROSION-RESISTANT LOCAL EXHAUST VENTILATION SYSTEMS SEPARATE
                      FROM OTHER EXHAUST VENTILATION SYSTEMS. CLEANING OF CONTAMI-
                      NATED EXHAUST AIR BEFORE RELEASE TO THE OUTDOORS MAY BE
                      NECESSARY. SUPPLY SUFFICIENT REPLACEMENT AIR TO MAKE UP FOR
                      AIR REMOVED BY EXHAUST SYSTEM.
                      DO NOT USE ORGANIC OR COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS SUCH AS WOOD IN
                      THE CONSTRUCTION OF VENTILATION OR CONTROL SYSTEMS. SEE
                      REFERENCE 13 FOR ADVICE REGARDING SUITABLE MATERIALS OF
                      CONSTRUCTION.                       

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT: IF ENGINEERING CONTROLS AND WORK PRACTICES ARE NOT
                               EFFECTIVE IN CONTROLLING EXPOSURE TO THIS MATERIAL,
                               THEN WEAR SUITABLE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
                               INCLUDING APPROVED RESPIRATORY PROTECTION. HAVE
                               APPROPRIATE EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE FOR USE IN EMERGEN-
                               CIES SUCH AS SPILLS OR FIRE. IF RESPIRATORY PROTEC-
                               TION IS REQUIRED, INSTITUTE A COMPLETE RESPIRATORY
                               PROTECTION PROGRAM INCLUDING SELECTION, FIT TESTING
                               TRAINING, MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION. REFER TO CSA
                               STANDARD Z94.4-93, " SELECTION, CARE, AND USE OF
                               RESPIRATORS,"
           
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION GUIDELINES: NIOSH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NITRIC ACID CON-
                                   CENTRATIONS IN AIR: UP TO 125 mg/m3, USE SAR
                                   OPERATED IN A CONTINUOUS-FLOW MODE. UP TO 250
                                   mg/m3 FULL-FACEPIECE SCBA, OR FULL-FACEPIECE
                                   SAR, OR GAS MASK WITH CANISTER TO PROTECT
                                   AGAINST NITRIC ACID, OR FULL-FACEPIECE CHEMICAL
                                   CARTRIDGE RESPIRATOR WITH CARTRIDGE(S) TO PROTECT
                                   AGAINST NITRIC ACID.
                                  
                                   EMERGENCY OR PLANNED ENTRY INTO UNKNOWN CON-
                                   CENTRATION OR IDLH CONDITIONS: POSITIVE PRES-
                                   SURE FULL-FACEPIECE SCBA, OR POSITIVE PRES-
                                   SURE FULL-FACEPIECE SAR WITH AUXILIARY POSI-
                                   TIVE PRESSURE SCBA. IDLH CONCENTRATION FOR
                                   NITRIC ACID IS 100 mg/m3.
                                  
                                   ESCAPE: GAS MASK WITH CANISTER TO PROTECT
                                   AGAINST NITRIC ACID, OR SCAPE-TYPE SCBA.
                                   
                                   NOTE: ONLY NON-OXIDIZABLE SORBENTS ARE ALLOWED
                                         (NOT CHARCOAL).

                                   NOTE: SUBSTANCE REPORTED TO CAUSE EYE IRRITA-
                                         TION OR DAMAGE, EYE PROTECTION NEEDED.                

                                   NOTE: RECOMMENDATIONS APPLY ONLY TO NIOSH AND
                                         MSHA APPROVED RESPIRATORS.  

                                   NOTE: IN THESE RECOMMENDATIONS THE IDLH CONCEN-
                                         TRATION IS DEFINED AS THE MAXIMUM CONCEN-
                                         TRATION WHICH WOULD NOT CAUSE ANY ESCAPE
                                         IMPAIRING SYMPTOMS OR IRREVERSIBLE HEALTH
                                         EFFECTS TO A PERSON EXPOSED FOR 30 MINUTES
                                         IF THE RESPIRATOR FAILED.
  
EYE / FACE PROTECTION: GAS-TIGHT CHEMICAL SAFETY GOGGLES. A FACE SHIELD MAY ALSO
                       BE NECESSARY.

SKIN PROTECTION: IMPERVIOUS GLOVES, COVERALLS, BOOTS, AND/OR OTHER RESISTANT PRO-
                 TECTIVE CLOTHING TO PROTECT ALL POSSIBLE SKIN CONTACTS. AN IM-
                 PERVIOUS ACID-RESISTANT FULL-BODY ENCAPSULATING SUIT AND RESPI-
                 RATORY PROTECTION MAY BE REQUIRED IN SOME OPERATIONS.

RESISTANCE OF MATERIALS FOR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: GUIDELINES FOR GREATER THAN 30 TO
                                                 70% NITRIC ACID (12): GOOD: VITON,
                                                 NEOPRENE COATED NATURAL RUBBER,
                                                 NEOPRENE + NATURAL RUBBER BLEND,
                                                 NATURAL RUBBER, POLYVINYL CHLORIDE,
                                                 SARANEX.
                                                 FAIR/POOR: NEOPRENE, POLYETHYLENE,
                                                 POLYVINYL ALCOHOL.
                                                 
                                                 NOTE: RESISTANCE OF A MATERIAL
                                                       CAN VARY FROM PRODUCT TO
                                                       PRODUCT. EVALUATE RESIS-
                                                       TANCE UNDER CONDITIONS OF
                                                       USE. 

ENCLOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION COMMENTS: REMOVE CONTAMINATED CLOTHING IM-
                                                 MEDIATELY. KEEP CONTAMINATED CLOTH-
                                                 ING THOROUGHLY WET OR IMMERSED IN
                                                 WATER IN CLOSED CONTAINERS. DISCARD
                                                 OR LAUNDER BEFORE REWEARING. INFORM
                                                 LAUNDRY PERSONNEL OF CONTAMINATION'S
                                                 HAZARDS. DO NOT EAT OR DRINK IN WORK
                                                 AREAS. MAINTAIN GOOD HOUSEKEEPING. 

OTHERS: EYE WASH FOUNTAIN AND SAFETY SHOWER IN THE AREA OF WORK IS REQUIRED.


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                   SECTION 9 - STORAGE AND HANDLING PRECAUTIONS

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STORAGE: STORE IN TIGHTLY CLOSED CORROSION-RESISTANT CONTAINER. STORE IN A DRY,
         COOL, AND WELL VENTILATED PLACE, OUT OF DIRECT SUNLIGHT AND AWAY FROM
         SOURCES OF HEAT. DO NOT STORE IN VICINITY OF INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS
         SUCH AS FLAMMABLES, OXIDIZERS, REDUCERS, STRONG BASES. USE CORROSION-
         RESISTANT STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND LIGHTING AND VENTILATION SYSTEMS IN
         THE STORAGE AREA. WOOD AND OTHER ORGANIC/COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS SHOULD
         NOT BE USED ON FLOORS, AS STRUCTURAL MATERIALS, AND IN VENTILATION
         SYSTEMS IN THE STORAGE AREA. SEE REFERENCE 13 FOR ADDITIONAL ADVICE
         REGARDING SUITABLE MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION. USE SUITABLE, APPROVED
         STORAGE CABINETS, TANKS, ROOMS AND BUILDINGS. SUITABLE STORAGE MAY
         INCLUDE GLASS BOTTLES AND CARBOYS. STORAGE TANKS SHOULD BE ABOVE GROUND
         AND SURROUNDED WITH DIKES CAPABLE OF HOLDING ENTIRE CONTENTS.
         KEEP QUANTITIES STORED AS SMALL AS POSSIBLE. AVOID BULK STORAGE INDOORS.
         RESTRICT ACCESS TO STORAGE AREA. POST WARNING SIGNS WHEN APPROPRIATE.
         KEEP STORAGE AREA SEPARATE FROM POPULATED WORK AREAS. INSPECT PERIODICALLY
         FOR DEFICIENCIES SUCH AS DAMAGE OR LEAKS.
         HAVE APPROPRIATE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS AVAILABLE IN AND NEAR THE STORAGE AREA.
 
HANDLING: THIS MATERIAL IS CORROSIVE, OXIDIZER, AND TOXIC. BEFORE HANDLING, IT IS
          IMPORTANT THAT ENGINEERING CONTROLS ARE OPERATING AND THAT PROTECTIVE
          EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS AND PERSONAL HYGIEN MEASURES ARE BEING FOLLOWED.
          PEOPLE WORKING WITH THIS CHEMICAL SHOULD BE PROPERLY TRAINED REGARDING
          ITS HAZARDS AND ITS SAFE USE. 
          AVOID PRODUCING CHEMICAL MIST OR VAPOR. PREVENT THE RELEASE OF MIST
          OR VAPOR INTO THE AIR. USE SMALLEST POSSIBLE AMOUNTS IN DESIGNATED AREAS 
          WITH ADEQUATE VENTILATION SEPARATE FROM THE STORAGE AREA. WHEN HANDLING
          LARGE QUANTITIES, CLOSED HANDLING SYSTEMS SHOULD BE USED.
          UNPROTECTED PERSONS SHOULD AVOID ALL CONTACTS WITH THIS CHEMICAL INCLUDING
          CONTAMINATED EQUIPMENT.
          LABEL CONTAINERS. AVOID DAMAGING CONTAINERS. KEEP CONTAINERS TIGHTLY
          CLOSED WHEN NOT IN USE. ASSUME THAT EMPTY CONTAINERS CONTAIN RESIDUES
          WHICH ARE HAZARDOUS. USE CORROSION-RESISTANT TRANSFER EQUIPMENT WHEN
          DISPENSING. WHENEVER POSSIBLE, USE SELF-CLOSING, PORTABLE CONTAINERS
          FOR DISPENSING SMALL AMOUNTS OF THIS MATERIAL. NEVER TRANSFER LIQUID
          BY PRESSURIZING THE ORIGINAL CONTAINER WITH AIR OR INERT GAS. FOLLOW
          THE CHEMICAL SUPPLIER'S ADVICE REGARDING VENTING OF DRUMS. IMMEDIATELY
          CONTACT THE SUPPLIER FOR HANDLING INSTRUCTION IF DRUMS OF THIS MATERIAL
          APPEAR TO BE SWOLLEN. HAVE SUITABLE EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT FOR FIRE, SPILLS
          AND LEAKS READILY AVAILABLE. PRACTICE GOOD HOUSKEEPING. MAINTAIN HANDL-
          ING EQUIPMENT. COMPLY WITH APPLICABLE REGULATIONS.
          DO NOT GET IN EYES, ON SKIN, OR ON CLOTHING. WASH THOROUGHLY WITH WATER
          AFTER HANDLING. REMOVE CONTAMINATED CLOTHING IMMEDIATELY. KEEP CONTAMINA-
          TED CLOTHING IN CLOSED CONTAINER. DISCARD OR LAUNDER BEFORE REWEARING.
          INFORM LAUNDRY PERSONNEL OF CONTAMINANTíS HAZARDS. DO NOT EAT OR DRINK
          IN WORK AREA.

NOTE: MATERIAL IS ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE. DO NOT STORE OR HANDLE NEAR ELECTRIC
      CURRENTS. READ THE ENTIRE MSDS AND LABEL BEFORE STORAGE AND HANDLING.

EMPTY CONTAINERS: RETAIN PRODUCT RESIDUE AND VAPORS. APPLY ALL NECESSARY PRECAU-
                  TIONS TO EMPTY CONTAINERS OF THIS PRODUCT.

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                      SECTION 10 - REGULATORY INFORMATION

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WHMIS: C (OXIDIZING MATERIAL), E (CORROSIVE MATERIAL).

TDG / D.O.T.: NITRIC ACID, CLASS 8(9.2) UN 2031, PG II. SPECIAL PROVISION 109
 
DSL / NDSL / TSCA: THE  (ALL)  CONSTITUENT(S)  OF THIS PRODUCT IS (ARE)
                   INCLUDED ON THE DSL / NDSL OF CEPA AND TSCA INVENTORY.

SARA / TITLE III HAZARD CATEGORIES AND LISTS: ACUTE (YES) , CHRONIC (YES),
                                              FLAMMABILITY (NO), PRESSURE (NO),
                                              REACTIVITY (NO), EXTREMELY HAZARD-
                                              OUS SUBSTANCE (YES), CERCLA HAZARD-
                                              OUS SUBSTANCE (YES), SARA 313 
                                              TOXIC CHEMICALS (YES),
                                              TSCA INVENTORY (YES).


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                        SECTION 11 - PRECAUTIONARY WARNING

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XENTEX® SAFETY DATA SYSTEM


                        HEALTH                     3       HIGH (TOXIC)
   
                        FLAMMABILITY               0       NONE

                        REACTIVITY                 3       HIGH (OXIDIZER)

                        CONTACT                    4       EXTREME (CORROSIVE)


NFPA: HEALTH-3, FLAMMABILITY-0, REACTIVITY-0   SPECIFIC HAZARD: OXY

 
0 = Minimal     1 = Slight      2 = Moderate       3 = Serious     4 = Severe                      

                                                                               

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                          SECTION 12 - ABBREVIATIONS

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NA = NOT AVAILABLE, OR NOT APPLICABLE                    N/E = NOT ESTABLISHED               
TWA = TIME-WEIGHTED AVERAGE
STEL = SHORT TERM EXPOSURE LIMIT
PEL = PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT
OSHA = OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
ACGIH = AMERICAN CONFERENCE OF GOVERNMENT INDUSTRIAL HYGIENISTS
TLV = THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE
SAR = SUPPLIED-AIR RESPIRATOR        SCBA = SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS 
IDLH = IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE OR HEALTH
NIOSH = NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH
MSHA = MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
WHMIS = WORKPLACE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INFORMATION SYSTEM
TDG = TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS
CEPA = CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                         SECTION  13 - OTHER  INFORMATION

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
             
THE INFORMATION, DATA, AND REFERENCES CONTAINED HEREIN ARE BELIEVED TO BE CORRECT
BUT DOES NOT PURPORT TO BE ALL-INCLUSIVE AND SHALL BE USED ONLY AS A GUIDE AND IS
NOT PACKAGE SIZE SPECIFIC, NOR SHOULD IT BE TAKEN AS A WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION.
THIS INFORMATION IS OFFERED SOLELY FOR YOUR CONSIDERATION, INVESTIGATION, AND
VERIFICATION. ANY USE OF THE INFORMATION MUST BE DETERMINED BY THE USER TO BE IN
ACCORDANCE WITH APPLICABLE FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS.  NOTH-
ING HEREIN IS TO  BE CONSTRUED AS RECOMMENDING ANY PRACTICE IN  VIOLATION OF ANY
PATENT OR IN VIOLATION OF ANY LAW OR REGULATION. IT IS THE USER'S RESPONSIBILITY
TO DETERMINE FOR HERSELF / HIMSELF THE SUITABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT FOR A SPECIFIC
PURPOSE AND TO ADOPT SUCH SAFETY PRECAUTION AS MAY BE NECESSARY. WE MAKE NO WAR-
RANTY  AS TO THE RESULTS  TO BE OBTAINED IN USING ANY OF OUR PRODUCTS. SINCE ALL
CONSEQUENCES OF USING AND HANDLING THIS PRODUCT ARE NOT KNOWN TO US,  AND CONDI-
TIONS OF USE AND HANDLING ARE NOT UNDER OUR CONTROL, WE MUST NECESSARILY DISCLAIM
ALL LIABILITY WITH RESPECT TO THE USE, APPLICATION, STORAGE,AND TRANSPORTATION OF
THIS PRODUCT. XENTEX ® SHALL NOT BE HELD LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGE RESULTING FROM
HANDLING OR FROM CONTACT WITH THIS PRODUCT. READ THE PRODUCT BULLETIN, PRODUCT
LABEL, THE REVERSE SIDE OF THE INVOICE OR PACKING SLIP, AND THE  CUSTOMER AGREE-
MENT FOR ADDITIONAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE.


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                            SECTION  14 - REFERENCES

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(1)   THE MERCK INDEX: AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHEMICALS, DRUGS, AND BIOLOGICALS.
      11TH ED. MERCK, 1989. P. 824 

(2)   RUTH, J.R. ODOR THRESHOLDS AND IRRITATION LEVELS OF SEVERAL CHEMICAL SUB-
      STANCES: A REVIEW. AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE ASSOCIATION JOURNAL. VOL. 47
      (MAR. 1986). P. A-142, A-149 

(3)   KIRK-OTHMER ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY. 3RD. ED. VOL. 15. JOHN
      WILEY AND SONS , 1981. P.853-870

(4)   RTECS RECORD FOR NITRIC ACID. DATE OF LAST UPDATE: 89 09;PRINTED 90 10 15
      
(5)   ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY. 3RD REV. ED. VOL 2.
      ILO, 1983. P. 1443-1445
      
(6)   HSDB RECORD FOR NITRIC ACID. COMPLETE UPDATE: 07/12/88; PRINTED 89/02/22

(7)   NIOSH CRITERIA FOR A RECOMMENDED STANDARD OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO NITRIC
      ACID. NIOSH, 1976. P. 21-55, 62-63, 68-69, 72-78

(8)   FIRE PROTECTION GUIDE ON HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. 9TH ED. NATIONAL FIRE PRO-
      TECTION ASSOCIATION, 1986. P. 491M:135 - 491:M-138  

(9)   DOCUMENTATION OF THE THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES AND BIOLOGICAL EXPOSURE INDICES.
      5TH ED. ACGIH, 1986. P. 428
  
(10)  GRANT, W.M. TOXICOLOGY OF THE EYE. 3RD ED. CHARLES C. THOMAS, 1986. P. 662

(11)  NIOSH POCKET GUIDE TO CHEMICAL HAZARDS. NIOSH, FEB. 1987. P. 172-173

(12)  SCHWOPE, A.D., ET AL. GUIDELINES FOR THE SELECTION OF CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE
      CLOTHING. 3RD.ED. VOL.1 ACGIH, 1987. P.107

(13)  ENVIRO TECHNICAL INFORMATION FOR PROBLEM SPILLS: NITRIC ACID. ENVIRONMENT
      CANADA, 1985

(14)  PERRYS CHEMICAL ENGINEERS HANDBOOK. 6TH ED. 1984. P.3-70

(15)  PETERS, S.G., ET AL. A CANINE MODEL OF BRONCHIAL INJURY INDUCED BY NITRIC ACID
      AMERICAN REVIEW OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE. VOL. 133 (JUNE 1986). P. 1049-1054
                                                                               
(16)  DRINKING WATER AND HEALTH. VOL.1 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 1977. P. 410-425
 
(17)  BRETHERICK, L. HANDBOOK OF REACTIVE CHEMICAL HAZARDS. 3RD ED. BUTTERWORTHS,
      1985. P. 1100-1129

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